to the GDSO

                         E-MAIL:  gdso@earthling.net   or   gdso@value.net.nz  (preferred)



       The Georgi Dobrovolski Solar Observatory is owned and operated by Howard Barnes, of Auckland, New Zealand. It has been in operation since 1972, then under the name "Georgi Dobrovolski Observatory". Although, initially an "all-round" observatory, it now concentrates solely on solar studies, in particular, sunspot activity, having observed the Sun routinely since March 1973. The observatory's name was changed to suit this operation in 1985.


     The GDSO's telescope is a 76mm f12 refractor, and has been used over 5800 times in solar observations.

     The GDSO publishes observational results on a monthly basis, and an Annual Report (ISSN 0112-9333) every April.



     Times stated in GDSO documents are in Universal Time (UT), an approximation of all Universal Times, including Co-ordinated Universal Time / Temps Universel Coordonné (UTC).

 PLEASE NOTE: There is NO other word order in English whatsoever, and NO other letter order (at all) for the name, and abbreviation, of Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC). It is, after all, the co-ordinated version of Universal Time.

The language-independent abbreviation UTC, is meant to be used in all languages.




A leap second was ADDED on 2016 December 31 at 23h 59m 60s UTC.

 This adjustment was made to ensure that Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) [atomic time] does not deviate from UT1 (‘mean time’ on the Greenwich meridian) by more than 0.9 seconds in absolute value. The sequence of markers will be 23:59:59 ,  23:59:60 , 00:00:00. Time-signals that are usually six-pip, will be seven-pip signals.

 The last leap second was at the end of June 2015 [UTC].

 This decision was made by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS).

The vote on the future of leap seconds has been deferred 'til 2023.











     Georgi Dobrovolski (right) was born to Timofei Dobrovolski and Maria Dobrovolskaya on 1st June 1928, at Odessa, the Ukraine, USSR.

     Georgi initially wanted a naval career, but was turned down. He then applied to, and was accepted by, the Air Force. He later joined the cosmonaut corps and became a crew member of Soyuz (Union) 11, with Vladislav Volkov and Viktor Patsayev under his command.

     After a successful 23-day stay in space, Georgi along with his colleagues, died just before re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere on the 30th June 1971.

     Georgi Timofeyevich left a wife, Lyudmila, and two daughters, Marina and Natasha, then aged 12 and 4.




'Project Archive' is a project to publish all GDSO monthly (observed, corrected and smoothed) results from 1973 onwards.

These are in index-by-index format in PDF. Generally, these files are 17 pages or less.

Over the latter half of November 2011, these were uploaded to the GDSO Archive website.










GDSO ; Sunspot Indices ; A Briefer History of Time

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